Wednesday, July 15, 2020

An Overview of Psychopathology

An Overview of Psychopathology February 05, 2019 More in Psychology Basics Psychotherapy Student Resources History and Biographies Theories Phobias Emotions Sleep and Dreaming In This Article Table of Contents Expand History Definition Professionals Diagnostic Systems Psychopathology vs. Normal Behavior Dimensional vs. Categorical Definitions The origin of the term psychopathology dates back to 1913 when this scientific discipline was first introduced by Karl Jaspers, a German/Swiss  philosopher  and psychiatrist. This new framework for understanding the mental experience of individuals followed a long history of varied attempts at making meaning out of the abnormal experiences of individuals. Verywell / Brianna Gilmartin   History of Understanding of Mental Illness Weve come a long way since the earliest beginnings of trying to make sense of mental illness. Although individuals with mental health issues still face stigma and a lack of understanding, things were very different in the past. Hippocrates, the 4th century BC Greek physician, rejected the notion of evil spirits and argued instead that mental illness was a disease of the brain relating to imbalances of bodily fluids. Around the same time, the philosopher Plato argued that distress resulted from an imbalance in the mind-body-spirit connection. If you lived in the 16th century with a mental health problem, chances are you would not have been treated very well. At that time, mental illness was often viewed from a religious or superstitious point of view. Accordingly, it was assumed that people demonstrating strange behavior must have been overtaken by evil spirits or demons. The cure? You would have been tortured to bring you back to sanity. If that didnt work? Execution. Later, in the 18th century, interest surged in the role of childhood and trauma in the development of mental illness. Following on the heels of this era, Sigmund Freud introduced talk therapy in the 19th century to deal with unresolved issues. As of present day, our understanding of mental illness has broadened, and so, thankfully, have the treatments. Definition of Psychopathology How do we currently define psychopathology? In short, it can be thought of as the in-depth study of problems related to mental health. Just like pathology is the study of the nature of disease (including causes, development, and outcomes), psychopathology is the study of the same concepts within the realm of mental health (or illness). This study of mental illness can include a long list of elements: symptoms, behaviors, causes (genetics, biology, social, psychological), course, development, categorization, treatments, strategies, and more. In this way, psychopathology is all about exploring problems related to mental health: how to understand them, how to classify them, and how to fix them. Because of this, the topic of psychopathology extends from research to treatment, and at every step in between. The better we can understand why a mental disorder develops, the easier it will be to find effective treatments. Professionals Involved in Psychopathology Which professionals are involved in the understanding of psychopathology? Just as this area is broad ranging from research to treatment, so too is the list of types of professionals who tend to be involved. At the research level, you will find research psychologists, psychiatrists, neuroscientists, and others trying to make sense of the different manifestations of mental disorders that are seen in clinical practice. At the practical level, you will find many types of professionals attempting to apply the diagnostic systems that are in place to provide effective treatments to individuals living with psychopathology. These can include the following and more: Clinical psychologistsPsychiatristsCounselorsSocial workersPsychiatric nursesNurse practitionersMarriage and family therapistsCriminologistsSociologists Diagnostic Systems of Psychopathology Professionals engaged in research and treatment of psychopathology must use systems to arrive at conclusions regarding the best course of action for treatment. Systems such as these are used to classify what are considered to be mental health disorders or problems that occur in an individual and that are not within their cognitive control. Currently, the most widely used systems for classifying mental illness in the United States are the following: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) The DSM-5 is created by the American Psychiatric Association as an assessment system for mental illness. The DSM-5 includes identifiable criteria that professionals use to arrive at a specific diagnosis for an individual that aids treatment planning. The criteria and list of disorders sometimes change as new research emerges. Some examples of disorders listed in the DSM-5 include major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, paranoid personality disorder, and social anxiety disorder. How Mental Health Professionals Use the DSM Today International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) The ICD-11 is a system similar to the DSM-5. The ICD was developed over a century ago and was taken over by the World Health Organization (WHO) when it was founded in 1948. How does the ICD-11 differ from the DSM-5? First, the ICD-11 is produced by a global agency, while the DSM-5 is produced by a national professional association (the American Psychiatric Association). It is approved by the World Health Assembly composed of health ministers from 193 WHO member countries. Second, the goal of the ICD-11 is to reduce disease burden globally. Third, the ICD-11 is freely available on the Internet. In contrast, the DSM costs money, and the American Psychiatric Association derives revenue from sales of the book and related products. Still, the DSM-5 is the standard for classification among psychologists and psychiatrists and is generally used for treatment and insurance purposes. Research Domain Criteria (RDoc) Beyond these standard systems for classifying mental disorders, there also exists a burgeoning area of research and theory that moves away from the checklist format of making diagnoses. Since its possible to have symptoms of a mental illness but not meet criteria for a diagnosis, studies of descriptive psychopathology hold promise for a better system of understanding. The RDoC is based on translational research from areas such as neuroscience, genomics, and experimental psychology. In this way, the RDoC is involved in describing the signs and symptoms of psychopathology rather than grouping into disorders as has been historically done with the DSM-5 and ICD-11. The RDoC is primarily aimed at planning and funding research. Distinguishing Psychopathology vs. Normal Behavior How do psychologists and psychiatrists decide what extends beyond normal behavior to enter the territory of psychopathology? Psychiatric disorders can be conceptualized as referring to problems in four areas: deviance, distress, dysfunction, and danger. For example, if you were experiencing symptoms of depression and went to see a psychiatrist, you would be assessed according to a list of symptoms (most likely those in the DSM-5): Deviance refers to thoughts, emotions, or behaviors that are unacceptable or not common based on currently held cultural beliefs. In the case of depression, you might report thoughts of guilt or worthlessness that are not common among other people.Distress refers to negative feelings either felt within a person or that result for people around that person. In the case of depression, you might report extreme feelings of distress over sadness or guilt.Dysfunction refers to the inability to achieve daily functions like going to work. In the case of depression, you might report that you cant get out of bed in the morning or that daily tasks take you much longer than they should.Danger refers to violent behavior toward yourself or others. In the case of depression, this could include reporting that you are having thoughts of suicide or harming yourself. In this way, you can see that the distinction between normal versus psychopathological behavior  comes down to how issues are affecting you or the people around you. Often, it is not until things come to a crisis point that a diagnosis is made, because this is when these aspects really show themselves. Dimensional vs. Categorical Definitions Its easy to see that there is some disagreement historically about what constitutes mental illness. At the same time, even in the current field, there is disagreement about how mental illness should be conceptualized. Do different disorders really exist, such that a person with attention-deficit disorder (ADHD) can be strictly differentiated from someone else with an anxiety disorder? Or, are there higher-order overarching factors that play a role in mental illness and that might better explain why some people are diagnosed with many illnesses (called comorbidity)? Some research shows that this could indeed be the case, with categories such as general risk, internalizing risk, and externalizing risk being helpful. Some have noted these problems inherent in the checklist approach to mental health. It might be misleading to group disorders as separate when there can be so much overlap between people diagnosed with different disorders (and so many dissimilarities among people diagnosed with the same disorder). Unfortunately, we are not currently any closer to resolving this issue. Hopefully, in the future, better systems will be developed that will take all these issues in the field of psychopathology into account. A Word From Verywell Are we any closer to an appropriate understanding of psychopathology? That remains to be debated. However, weve certainly moved forward from primitive attempts and moved toward a program of research that holds promise for describing symptoms in a helpful way, rather than classifying and categorizing to the detriment of actually understanding the development of problems and the best ways to treat them. Psychological Disorders Described in the DSM-5

Thursday, May 21, 2020

`` Disgrace Byj.m Coetzee `` Sexuality And Gender Essay

Sexuality and Gender People around the world tend to say that this is a man’s world, and in the novel Disgrace by J.M Coetzee, the author demonstrates how men are more â€Å"powerful† than woman through the way the characters use women for sex and the experience each women in the novel goes through. The three main female characters that demonstrate the different experience of women and sex are; Melanie, Lucy, and Bev. Melanie is a young, ex-student of Professor Lurie, who is beautiful enough to seduce a men but also vulnerable enough to be taken advantage by them. On the other hand, Lucy is neither old nor young; she does not care about her image and is a country woman, which makes her characteristics be less sophisticated. Lucy is an important character for sexuality, since she is a lesbian, giving her somewhat male characteristics also. Bev is an older, more experienced woman, with country characteristics as well. Each woman has different characteristics but all thre e of them contribute to the terms of sexuality and gender differences. The novel is opened through a sex scene, showing how Lurie, the anti-hero of the novel, is using Soraya, a prostitute, to fulfill his needs and complete his Thursday sex routine. After he is done with his affair with Soraya, he moves on to Melanie; a 22 year old women who is not only thirty years younger than him, but also his student. Melanie is an awkward character. She says she does not want professor Lurie but yet takes all the sex

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Segregation Of The Achievement Gap - 1837 Words

The Camouflaged Segregation of the Achievement Gap in the United States Education System The first public school in the United States opened in Boston in the year of 1821. By the end of the 19th century, public secondary schools began to outnumber private ones. Nevertheless, the education system started with many flaws. One of the biggest problems of the public educational system is that, although it gave the less advantaged an opportunity to learn, it did so in a segregated way. When we talk about the segregation of the past, everyone seems to agree that it was a real problem. However, when someone say the schools are still segregated today, many people (from advantaged social groups) would disagree. One thing to keep in mind is that, desegregation is not limited to having multiracial schools with students of color sitting next to white students. Desegregation goes beyond the school scope and family and community cultures also play an important role. To make things worse, the educat ion system is having several problems on achieving its mission of preparing the youth to succeed personally and professionally. According to experts, the achievement gap shows how big those problems are. In order to understand why the achievement gap is related to today s segregation, we need to understand what achievement gap is. The best definition of achievement gap, describes it as the difference in educational proficiency between students who come from high or middle class white families,Show MoreRelatedThe Unequal Separation Of African Americans1453 Words   |  6 PagesAfrican Americans as a whole agree that racial segregation has affected their chances of employment, residency, education and access to proper health facilities. Many have stories and experiences of being qualified for a job but being turned down for being African American. 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According to an article called â€Å"Addressing the Achievement Gap Between Minority and Nonminority Children by Increasing Access to Gifted Programs,† by Paula Olszewski-Kubilius, Seon-young Lee, and Mephie Ngoi, â€Å"The most signifi cant educational problem in the U.S. is the fact that the achievement of minority children lags behind that of non-minority children† (Kubilius 2004). In another article called â€Å"Bridging the minority achievement gap,† by Edmund W. Gordon, it’s said that â€Å"although African-AmericanRead MoreCharter Schools Vs Traditional Public Schools948 Words   |  4 Pagesproviding an alternative path to education, these schools will significantly increase segregation, widening the student achievement gap between affluent and low income students, disabled and language minority students. 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There are a few solutions to theseRead MoreGender Inequality Of Women And Women Essay1440 Words   |  6 Pagesthe gen der gap in job quality women face in occupation. It is divided by six categories of gap: achievement, content, job security, time autonomy, physical condition, emotional condition. The per cent of women in occupations is represented by the x-axis. The gap in each category’s score between men and women is represented by the y-axis. The score zero states that men and women have equality. As seen in Figure 1, Stier and Yaish (2014) concluded that achievement and emotional condition gap are not narrowed;Read MoreThe Corporate Side Of American Public Education And The Reformists Misled Beliefs That The School System1389 Words   |  6 Pagesmanaged, free-market system of schooling† (Ravitch, p.4). Diane Ravitch supports her claim that the reformation movement has poor intentions with multiple sources of evidence. 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Night World The Chosen Chapter 17 Free Essays

Hunter’s yacht was bigger than the powerboat Quinn had brought to the island. There was a salon down in the cabin and two separate staterooms. Right now, Timmy was in one of them. We will write a custom essay sample on Night World : The Chosen Chapter 17 or any similar topic only for you Order Now Nyala was in another. Quinn had put them both to sleep. Quinn and Rashel were in the cockpit. â€Å"Do you think any of the vampires got out?† Rashel said softly. â€Å"I don’t know. Probably.† His voice was as quiet as hers. He was filthy, covered with sand and soot, burned here and there, and wildly disheveled. He had never looked more beautiful to Rashel. â€Å"You saved Nyala,† she whispered. â€Å"And I know you did it for me.† He looked at her and some of the tense focus went out of his eyes. The hardness in his face softened. Rashel took his hand. She didn’t know how to say the rest of what she meant. That she knew he had changed, that he was changing every minute. She could almost feel the new parts of his mind opening and growing-or rather, the old parts, the parts he’d deliberately left behind when he stopped being human. â€Å"Thank you, John Quinn,† she whispered. He laughed. It wasn’t a savage laugh, or a bitter laugh, or even the charming Mad Hatter laugh. It was just a real laugh. Tired and shaky, but happy. â€Å"What else could I do?† Then he reached for her and they were holding each other. They might look like two refugees from a disaster movie, but all Rashel felt was the singing joy of their closeness. It was such comfort to be able to hold on to Quinn, and such wonder to feel him holding her back. A feeling of peace stole over her. There were still problems ahead. She knew that. Her mind was already clicking through them, forming a dim checklist of things to worry about when she regained the ability to worry. Hunter and the other vampires. They might still be alive. They might come looking for revenge. But even if they did†¦ Rashel had spent her whole life fighting the Night World alone. Now she had Quinn beside her, and together they could take on anything. Daphne and the girls. Rashel felt sure they were safe; she trusted Annelise and Keiko. But once they got home, they’d be traumatized. They would need help. And someone would need to figure out what they should tell the rest of the world. Not that anyone would believe it was real vampires who had kidnapped them if they said so, Rashel thought. The police would pass it off as a cult or something. Still, the girls know the truth. They may be fresh recruits for the fight†¦. Against what? How could she be a vampire hunter now? How could she try to destroy the Night World? Where could a reformed vampire and a burned-out vampire hunter go when they fell in love? The answer, of course, was obvious. Rashel knew even as she formed the question, and she laughed silently into Quinn’s shoulder. Circle Daybreak. They’d become damned Daybreakers. Granted, they weren’t the type to dance in circles with flowers in their hair, singing about love and harmony and all that. But if Circle Daybreak was going to make any headway, it needed something besides love and harmony. It needed a fighting arm. Somebody to deal with the vampires who were hopelessly evil and bent on destruction. Somebody to save people like Nyala’s sister. Somebody to protect kids like Timmy. Come to think of it, Circle Daybreak was where Nyala and Timmy belonged, too. Right now they need peace and healing, and people who would understand what they’d been through. I don’t know, Rashel thought, maybe witches can help. She hoped so. She thought Nyala would be all right-there was a kind of inner strength to the girl that kept her fighting. She wasn’t so sure about Timmy. Trapped in a four-year-old body, his mind twisted by whatever lies Hunter had told him†¦ what kind of normal life could he ever have? But he was alive, and there was a chance. And maybe there were parts of his mind that were bright and warm and aching to grow. Elliot and Vicky and the other vampire hunters. Rashel would have to talk to them, try to explain what she’d learned. She didn’t know if they’d listen. But she would have to try. â€Å"All anybody can do is try,† she said softly. Quinn stirred. He leaned back to look into her face. â€Å"You’re right,† he said, and she realized that he’d been thinking about the same things. Our minds work alike, she thought. She had found her partner, her equal, the one to work and live and love with her. Her soulmate. â€Å"I love you, John Quinn,† she said. And then they were kissing each other and she was finding in him a tenderness that even she hadn’t suspected. But it made sense. After all, the opposite of absolute ruthlessness is absolute tenderness-and when you ripped the one away, you were left with the other. I wonder what else I’ll find out about him? She thought, dizzy with discovery. Whatever it is, it’s sure to be interesting. â€Å"I love you, Rashel Jordan,† he said against her lips. Not Rashel the Cat. The Cat was dead, and all the old anger and the hate had burned away. It was Rashel Jordan who was starting a new future. She kissed Quinn again and felt the beauty and the mystery of his thoughts. â€Å"Hold me tighter,† she whispered. â€Å"I’m a little cold.† â€Å"You are? I feel so warm. It’s spring tomorrow, you know.† And then they both were quiet, lost in each other. The boat sped on through the sparkling ocean and into the promise of the moonlit night.. [The End] How to cite Night World : The Chosen Chapter 17, Essay examples

Saturday, April 25, 2020

Zavier Bacote Essays - Sports, Medicine, Neurotrauma,

Zavier Bacote ENG 111 Sarah Bruton 16 January 2018 Rhetorical Analysis Draft : Beware the Classroom Costs of Sports Head Injuries In the article Beware the Classroom Costs of Sports Head Injuries by Hallie Zwibel and Heron-Burke they talk about concussion and the impact it can have on a young athlete, and the types of cognitive disabilities they could be affected by from head injuries. As a former athlete, this article I can really relate to because of the many amounts of concussions I have endured and the impact it can have when I'm trying to remember something or try to learn something. For about 4 years I have played high school football and though the four years I have always had trouble when it came to studying because I could never remember anything, and test taking because I couldn't remembered what I studied. For many years I have ignored my concussion just like Molly Poletto, and in doing that it hasn't been good to me when it came to learning and remembering. High School football and high school sport s in general have found new ways for student athletes to prevent concussions and for them to find out if they have one. Concussions can cause many mood swings that can really affect the way you do things academically . In the article they show survey results revealing school that try to help with diagnosing concussions a try to prevent them and the results show seven in ten schools had annual process for educating and providing student athletes about concussions. The NCAA is really cracking down on ways programs treat their athletes after and before having a concussion. NCAA pr ograms follow the standard concussion protocol program called return-to-learn, which provides neurologic exams and tests for vision and memory, it was made to determine if students can return after a concussion (ZWIBEL 2). College involves lots of time, studying , and learning and for student athletes it is a lot more harder , because they have to balance their sports and school work, and that can be very stressful and a lot of times tiring. That's why being a student athlete is the most time consuming and tiring thing to do being a student in college, that's why it is very important to monitor concussions that happen to student athletes because of the symptoms like anxiety and depression that can affect a whole students college mindset and the way they learn. The story of Molly Poletto to me has changed the way the NCAA treats students suffering from concussion while in school. And more and more collegiate programs are involved in trying to help student athletes concussion issues that involve them academically struggling. Over the years , many professional athletes had to retire early because of concussion systems they are experiencing since they were collegiate athletes, and if really not treated right early the concussions symptoms that was discussed can turn into something far worst that can affect your whole livelihood , called CTE which is a disease that kills many athletes because of the concussions they have had wasn't treated right. So many collegiate programs should really help there student athletes out and treat concussions before they affect athletes lives. WORK CITED By Hallie Zwibel and Alice Heron-Burke On 1/6/16 at 5:20 PM Hallie Zwibel is director of New York Institute of Technology Center for Sports Medicine, where Alice Heron-Burke is senior director of counseling and wellness https://drive.google.com/drive/folders/1u-8Phjm-uN73zwhCnM0s-_n6M5AMmXDT

Wednesday, March 18, 2020

A Collection of Funny Relationship Quotes

A Collection of Funny Relationship Quotes Funny situations occur when you have complicated relationships. Look around you, and youll see that chaotic relationship  sometimes lead to amusing situations. Movies are made about relationships gone bad or just beginning. When you go to a party, you can observe couples and tell which couple had a fight before coming to the party and which one will have a fight after the party.When relationships go sour, it helps to look at the funny side. Instead of being anxious about your love life, make a joke about it and move on. If you have been through heartbreak, laugh at your mistake. The quicker you bounce back, the easier you are able to move on  and develop new relationships. Here are funny relationship quotes that will put a smile on your face the next time you are feeling down over your relationship. Linda FestaThe most important thing in a relationship between a man and a woman is that one of them be good at taking orders.Erma BombeckMarriage has no guarantees. If that’s what you’re looking for, go live with a car battery.Frederick RyderWhen a man goes on a date, he wonders if he is going to get lucky. A woman already knows.Sarah DessenRelationships dont always make sense. Especially from the outside.Jonathan CarrollYou have to walk carefully in the beginning of love; the running across fields into your lovers arms can only come later when youre sure they wont laugh if you trip.Samuel GoldwynA bachelors life is no life for a single man.Mark Twain What would men be without women? Scarce, sir, mighty scarce.Bobby KeltonThe difference between being in a relationship and being in prison is that in prisons they let you play softball on the weekends.Agatha ChristieAn archeologist is the best husband any woman can have; the older she gets, the more interested he is in her .Glenn BeckRemember, beneath every cynic there lies a romantic, and probably an injured one.Benjamin FranklinKeep your eyes wide open before marriage, half shut afterward.Laurence J. PeterIts better to have loved and lost than to do 40 pounds of laundry a week.Henry YoungmanSome people ask the secret of our long marriage. We take the time to go to a restaurant two times a week. A little candlelight, dinner, soft music and dancing. She goes Tuesdays; I go Fridays.Men are from Earth. Women are from Earth. Deal with it.Ronnie ShakesRelationships give us a reason to live. Revenge.Rita RudnerWhen I want to end a relationship I just say, You know, I love you. I want to marry you. I want to have your children. Sometimes they leave skid marks.Brendan FrancisA man is already halfway in love with any woman who listens to him.Jim BishopWatching your daughter being collected by her date feels like handing over a million dollar Stradivarius to a gorilla.Albert EinsteinWomen marry men hoping they will change. Men marry women hoping they will not. So each is inevitably disappointed.Jacqueline BissetIdeally, couples need three lives: one for him, one for her and one for them together.

Sunday, March 1, 2020

VEGA Surname Origin and Last Name Meaning

VEGA Surname Origin and Last Name Meaning The Spanish surname Vega is a topographical name that means dweller in the meadow or one who lives on a plain, from the Spanish word  vega, used to refer to a meadow, valley or fertile plain. It could also be a habitational name for someone from one of any of the many places in the world named Vega or La Vega. Vega is the 49th most common Spanish surname. Alternate Surname Spellings: VEGAS, VEGAZ, DE LA VEGA,   Surname Origin: Spanish Where Do People With the VEGA Surname Live? The surname distribution map at Forebears, which includes data from 227 countries, pinpoints Vega as the 519th most common surname in the world. It identifies Vega as most common in Panama where it ranks 25th in the nation, followed by Puerto Rico (27th), Costa Rica (32nd), Peru (47th), Chile (47th), Argentina (50th), Mexico (55th), Spain (62nd), Cuba (74th), Equador (81st), Colombia (87th), Paraguay (96th) and Nicaragua (99th). WorldNames PublicProfiler identifies the Vega name in Spain as most frequently found in the northern regions of Asturias, Castille Y Leon, and Cantabria, as well as the southern regions of Andalucia and the Canary Islands. Within the United States, the Vega name is most common in the southwest, in the states bordering Mexico, along with Nevada, Idaho, and Florida, plus Illinois, New York, New Jersey, and Connecticut. Famous People with the VEGA Surname Paz Vega - Spanish actressAmelia Vega - 2003 Miss UniverseJurij Vega - Slovene mathematician and physicist- Spanish playwrightGarcilaso de la Vega - Spanish poet Genealogy Resources for the Surname VEGA 50 Most Common Spanish SurnamesHave you ever wondered about your Spanish last name and how it came to be? This article describes common Spanish naming patterns and explores the meaning and origins of 50 common Spanish surnames. Vega Family Crest - Its Not What You ThinkContrary to what you may hear, there is no such thing as a Vega family crest or coat of arms for the Vega surname.  Coats of arms are granted to individuals, not families, and may rightfully be used only by the uninterrupted male-line descendants of the person to whom the coat of arms was originally granted.   The Vega DNA Surname ProjectThis Y-DNA surname project is open to all  families with this surname, of all spelling variations, and from all locations, with the goal of using DNA matches to  help find the paper trail that leads further back up the Vega family tree. VEGA Family Genealogy ForumThis free message board is focused on descendants of Vega ancestors around the world. Search past queries, or post a question of your own. FamilySearch - VEGA GenealogyAccess over 1.7 million free historical records and lineage-linked family trees posted for the Vega surname and its variations on this free genealogy website hosted by the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. VEGA Surname Mailing ListThis free mailing list for researchers of the Vega surname and its variations includes subscription details and searchable archives of past messages. Hosted by RootsWeb. DistantCousin.com - VEGA Genealogy Family HistoryExplore free databases and genealogy links for the last name Vega. The Vega Genealogy and Family Tree PageBrowse family trees and links to genealogical and historical records for individuals with the last name Vega from the website of Genealogy Today. - References: Surname Meanings Origins Cottle, Basil. Penguin Dictionary of Surnames. Baltimore, MD: Penguin Books, 1967. Dorward, David. Scottish Surnames. Collins Celtic (Pocket edition), 1998. Fucilla, Joseph. Our Italian Surnames. Genealogical Publishing Company, 2003. Hanks, Patrick, and Flavia Hodges. A Dictionary of Surnames. Oxford University Press, 1989. Hanks, Patrick. Dictionary of American Family Names. Oxford University Press, 2003. Reaney, P.H. A Dictionary of English Surnames. Oxford University Press, 1997. Smith, Elsdon C. American Surnames. Genealogical Publishing Company, 1997. Back to Glossary of Surname Meanings Origins